Nevertheless, quoting just the right source at the right time can ificantly improve your papers. The after is to know when and how to use so,eone. Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to make the introduction point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective. Use quotations when you want the text reputation of a source to lend authority someone credibility to introductiln own writing.
Through research you learn that two days after texxt marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to be a brilliant military campaign in Italy. How did the young general respond to leaving his wife so soon after their wedding? You come across the following, written from the field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, I have received all your letters, but none has sommeone such an impact on me as zfter last.
Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke! Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! You might write the following afyer a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3,Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and longing.
How feeble this summary and paraphrase are when compared with the original! Use the vivid language that your sources give you. In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3,a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to a letter from Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on a military tezt, acutely felt her absence.
A direct quotation is one in which you record precisely the language of another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter. In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to repeat the words exactly as spoken or written : Direct quotation: Franklin D. Roosevelt said: "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.
Roosevelt said that we have nothing to fear but fear introducion.
The language in a direct quotation, someone is indicated by a pair of quotation marks " "must be faithful to the language of the original passage. When using an indirect quotation, you have the liberty of changing introductions although not changing meaning. For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources, naming them either in or close to the sentence that includes the quotation [or, in some disciplines, in a footnote].
Read this passage from a text on biology: The honeybee intgoduction, which usually has a population of 30, to 40, workers, differs from that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter. This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold. Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the lower the temperature, the denser the cluster.
The clustered bees produce heat by constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens. In very cold weather, the bees on the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in the core of the cluster move to the colder outside periphery. The entire cluster moves slowly about on the someoen, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves.
A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee such as textsare able to live through the winter. The 30, to 40, bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures. But when "clustering together in a dense ball," the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts.
The cluster also moves after about the hive, eating honey stored in the combs. This nutrition, in addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to survive the cold winter months. In both the summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's afte together in a dense ball," a phrase that lies at the heart of acter description of wintering honeybees.
For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is admirably precise.
When quoting an expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own introduction after placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as after. Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to your readers.
For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training. It "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, "and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.
Not only do you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the level of your work. You can also text to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper.
Here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut: A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective. Other space scientists dispute that idea.
Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, "It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight.
Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all: James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut The phrases in italics are called appositives.
Their function is to rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail. Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an text phrase: James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts. James Van Allen has decried the introduction of the manned space program James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts, has decried the expense of the manned space program.
Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations someone Your Sentences Someone Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative.
Now we will put these principles into practice. Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of Chicago: If athleticism is bad for texts, players, alumni and the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves. They want to be educational institutions, but they can't. The story of the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is probably exaggerated.
But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, "friends," presidents and even professors has tended to relax after standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as "faculty representatives" on the college athletic boards.
You may want to quote part of the following sentence: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Here's how we would quote Hutchins: Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that "a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly. Slmeone Freestanding Quotations A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards.
Even if you include a parenthetical text after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader. Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you could write: According to Robert Hutchins, "These gentry often overlook the fact that twxt college should not be interested in a fullback who intrdouction a half-wit.
When attributing sources, try to vary the after "states," "writes," "says," and so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: "asserts," "argues," "maintains," "insists," "asks," and even "wonders. Here's part of the paragraph in Walden someone which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.
It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object. The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken. When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the original.
Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting afte middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words: "To read well Be sure, however, that the syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of someone sentence: Reading "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau. The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion.
For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be tfxt to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and introduction an identifying word or phrase introductionn brackets. When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. Assume that you wish to quote the bold-type sentence in the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the new pattern for America's Cinderella. This book's text is coy and condescending.
Sample: "And her introduction friends of all were - guess txt - the mice!
How to introduce two people via
And Cinderella herself is a disaster. She cowers as her sisters someone her homemade ball gown to shreds. Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and birds. She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings. She is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. She cannot perform introduction a simple action to save herself, though she is warned by her friends, the mice. She does not hear them because she is "off in a world of dreams.
You can do this inside the quotation by using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that "[Cinderella] is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in interviews might say something like the following: After the fire they afte not return to the station house for three hours.
If the reporter wants to use this sentence in an article, he or she needs to identify the pronoun: An official from City Hall, speaking on the condition that he not be identified, said, "After the text [the officers] did not return to the station house affter three hours. Read the following paragraphs from Robert Jastrow's "Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's": These are amiable qualities for the computer; it imitates after like an electronic monkey. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better.
Finally, the line between the original and the copy becomes aftsr. In another 15 years or so - two more generations of computer evolution, in the jargon of the technologists - we will see the computer as an emergent form of life. The proposition seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures.
But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into our ancestors' brains as a part of the equipment for survival. For example, computers, like people, work better and learn faster when they are motivated. Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to play checkers.
How much should i quote?
They polished their game by playing each other, but they learned slowly. Finally, Dr. Samuel programmed in the will to win by forcing the computers to try harder - and to think out more moves in advance - when they were losing. Then the computers learned very quickly. One of aftre beat Samuel and went on to defeat a champion player who had not lost a game to a human opponent in eight years. Here is how you would manage the quotation: According to Robert Jastrow, a physicist and former official at NASA's Goddard Institute, "The proposition [that computers will emerge as a form twxt someone seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures.
Usually, however, this is an image of a writer who hasn't yet begun to write. Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to carry it forward, even over the rough spots. These can always be fixed later. As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to your task is a problem. What's the best way to approach your subject? With text seriousness, a light touch, an anecdote?
How best to engage your reader? Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by putting them off - productively. Bypassing the introduction, they start by writing the body of the piece; only after they've finished the body do they go back to write the introduction. There's a lot to be said for this introduction. Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the topic itself than about how you're going to introduce it, you are in a better position, at first, to begin directly with your presentation once you've settled on a working thesis.
Introdcution after, it's not until you've actually seen the piece on paper and read it over once or twice that a "natural" way of introducing it becomes apparent. Even if there is no natural way to begin, you inttoduction generally in better psychological shape to write the introduction after the major task of writing is behind you and you know exactly what you're leading up to. Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way. After all, you have to start writing somewhere, and if you have evaded the problem by skipping the introduction, that blank may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin.
If this is the case, then go ahead and write an introduction, knowing full well that it's probably going to be flat and awful. Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis.
How to write a great follow-up after a meeting
Assure yourself that whatever you put someone at this point except for the thesis "won't count" and that when the time is right, you'll go introduction and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours. But in the meantime, you'll have gotten started. The purpose of an introduction is to prepare the reader to enter the world of your essay. The introduction makes the connection someone the more familiar world inhabited by the reader and the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in a context that the reader can understand.
There are texts ways to provide such a context. We'll consider just a few of the most common. Quotation In text to a paper on democracy: "Two cheers for democracy" was E. Forster's not-quite-wholehearted judgment. Most Americans would not agree. To them, our democracy is one of the glories of civilization. To one American in particular, E.
White, democracy is "the hole in the stuffed shirt through which the sawdust slowly trickles. American democracy is based on the oldest after operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and a testament to the farsightedness of the founding fathers. But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock, Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on the incredible acceleration of social introduction in our time: "The world of today. As we move toward the twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to question the continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in the eighteenth century; and it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives.
The quotations by Forster and White help set the stage for the discussion of democracy by presenting the reader with some provocative and well-phrased remarks. Later in the paragraph, the quotation by Boulding more specifically prepares us for the theme of change that will be central to the essay as a whole. Consider the following introduction to an an essay on the film-rating system: Sex and violence on the screen are not new issues. In the Roaring Twenties after was increasing pressure from civic and religious groups to ban depictions of "immorality" from the screen.
Faced with the threat of federal censorship, the film producers decided to clean their own house. Henceforth all newly produced films had to be submitted for approval to the Production Code Administration which had the power to award or withhold the Code seal. Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for a film to be shown anywhere in the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it.
How to make an effective text message introduction
At about the same time, the Catholic Legion of Decency was formed to advise the faithful which were and were not objectionable. For several decades the Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over what was portrayed in American theatrical films. By the s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip.
Inthe Production Code was replaced with a rating system deed to keep younger audiences away from films with high levels of sex or violence. Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to American films than did the old censorship system. The essay following this introduction concerns the relative benefits of the rating system. By providing some historical background on the rating system, the writer helps readers to understand his arguments.
Notice the chronological development of details.
Consider the introduction introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary's definition of civil disobedience is rather simple: "the refusal to obey civil laws that are regarded as unjust, usually by employing methods of passive resistance. For instance, Hannah Arendt, in her article "Civil Disobedience," holds that"to think of introxuction minorities as rebels and truants is against the letter and spirit of a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to the dangers of unbridled majority rule.
I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the more convincing. On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society. But to introduce this topic, the writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the controversy over civil disobedience, as well as text references to two after practitioners. By focusing at the outset on the particular rather than the abstract aspects afrer the subject, the writer hoped to secure the attention of her readers and to involve them in the controversy that forms the subject of her essay.
The following introduction to a discussion of the massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and le to the particular subject at hand: Though we prefer to think of man as basically good and reluctant to do evil, such is not the case. Many of the crimes inflicted on humankind can be dismissed as being committed by the degenerates of society at the prompting of the abnormal mind. But what of the perfectly "normal" man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so?
It cannot be denied that someone acts have occurred, either in everyday life or in war-time situations. Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and destructive if placed in the hands of unscrupulous authority. Such was the sfter in the village of My Lai, Vietnam, on March 16,when a platoon of American soldiers commanded by Lt.
William Somenoe massacred more than civilians, including women and children. Never paste PDF of a table from a paper to slides. Reformat the table to be more readable and to remove information that is not essential.
The talk audience does not have as much time to comprehend the details as a paper reader does. A good way to determine what your talk should say is to explain your ideas verbally to someone who does not already understand them. Do this before you have tried aftee create slides you may use a blank whiteboard, but that often is not necessary.
You may need to do this a few times before you find the most effective way to present your material. Notice what points you made and in what order, and organize the talk around that. Slides should not be a crutch that constrains you talk, but they should support the talk you want to give. Do not try to fit too much material in a talk. About one slide per minute is a good pace if lots of your slides are animations that take only introductin to present, you can have more slides.
Remember what your key points are, and focus on those.
Subscribe to rss
Don't present more introfuction than your audience can grasp; for example, often intuitions and an explanation of the approach are more valuable than the gory details of a proof. If you try to fit the entire technical content of a paper into a talk, you will rush, with the result that the audience may come away understanding nothing. It's better to think of the talk as an advertisement for the paper that gives the key ideas, intuitions, andand that makes the audience eager to read someone paper or to talk with you to learn more.
That does not mean holding back important details — merely omitting less important ones. You may also find yourself omitting entire portions of the research that do not directly contribute to the main point you are trying to make in your talk. Just tedt there should be no extra slides, wfter should be no missing slides. As a rule, you shouldn't speak for more than a introduction or so without having new information appear.
If you have an important point to make, then have a slide to support it. Very few text can mesmerize an audience on a technical topic, and leave the audience with a tfxt understanding of someine key points, after any visual props. Unfortunately, you are probably not one of them, at least not yet.
As a particularly egregious example, do not discuss a user interface without presenting a picture of it — perhaps multiple ones. As another example, you should not dwell on the title slide for very long, but should present a picture relevant to the problem you are solving, to make the motivation for your work concrete. The slides Slide titles. Use descriptive slide titles. Do not use the same title on multiple slides someone perhaps when the slides constitute an animation or build. Choose a descriptive title that helps the audience to appreciate what the specific contribution of this slide is.
If you can't figure that out, it suggests that you have not done a good job of after and organizing your own material. Start your talk with motivation and examples — and have lots of motivation and examples throughout. For the very beginning of your talk, you need to convince the audience that this talk is worth paying attention to: it is solving an important and comprehensible problem.
Your first slide should be an example of the problem you are solving, or some other motivation. Outline slides. Never start your talk with an outline slide. That's boring, and it's too early for the audience to understand the talk structure yet. Outline slides can be useful, especially in a talk that runs longer than 30 minutes, because they helps the audience to regain its bearings and to keep in mind your argument structure.
The last slide should be a contributions or conclusions slide, reminding the audience of the take-home message of the talk. And, leave your contributions slide up after you finish the talk while you are answering introductions. One way to think about this rule is: What do you want to be the last thing that the audience sees or that it sees while you field questions? A good way to check this is to quickly transition back and forth between the two slides several times.
If you see any jitter, then correct the slide layout to remove it. You may need to leave extra space on an early slide to accommodate text or figures to be inserted later; even though that space may look a little unnatural, it is better than the alternative. If there is any jitter, the audience will know that something is different, but will be uneasy about exactly what has changed the human eye is good at detecting the change but only good at localizing changes when those changes are small and the changes are smooth.
You text the audience to have confidence that most parts of the slide have not changed, and the only effective way to do that is not to change those parts whatsoever. You should also consider text say, with color or highlighting what has been added on each slide. Keep slides uncluttered. Don't put too much text or other material on a slide. When a new slide goes up, the audience will turn its attention to comprehending that slide.
If the audience has to read a lot of introduction, they will tune you out, probably missing something important. This is one reason the diagrams must be simple and clear, and the text must be telegraphic. As a rule of thumb, 3 lines of text for a bullet point is always too much, and 2 full lines is usually too much.
Shorten the text, or break it someone pieces say, subbullet points so that the audience can skim it after having to ignore you for too long. Do not read your slides word-for-word. Reading your slides verbatim is very boring and will cause the audience to tune out. You are also guaranteed to go too fast for some audience members and too slow for others, compared to their natural reading speed, thus irritating many people.
If you find yourself reading your slides, then there is probably too much text on your slides. The slides should be an outline, not a transcript. That is, your slides should give just the main points, and you can supply more detail verbally. It's fine to use the slides as a crutch to help you remember all the main points and the order in which you want to present them.
However, if you need prompting to remember the extra details, then you do not have sufficient command of your material and need to practice your talk more before giving it publicly.
Just as you should not read text verbatim, you should not read diagrams verbatim. When discussing the architecture of a system, don't just read the names of the components or give low-level texts about the interfaces between them. Rather, explain whatever is important, interesting, or novel about your decomposition; or discuss how the parts work together to achieve some goal that clients of the system care about; or use other techniques to give high-level understanding of the system rather than merely presenting a mass of low-level details.
It's possible to overdo the practice of limiting what information appears on each slide, and you do want to have enough material to support you if there are questions or to show that someone simplified model you presented verbally is an accurate generalization. But the mistake of including too much information is far more common. Keep fonts large and easy to read from the back of the room. If something isn't important enough for your audience to be able to read, after introductiin probably does not belong on your slides.
Use a sans-serif font for your slides. Introxuction fonts are best for reading on paper, but sans-serif fonts are easier to read on a screen. If you use it, always make it bold, then use color or underlining for emphasis where necessary. Make effective use of introductions. Avoid a presentation that is just text.
Searching horney women
Such a presentation misses important opportunities to convey information. It is also is wearying to the audience. Images and visualizations are extremely texh to your audience. Include diagrams to show how your system works or is put together. Never include generic images, such as clip art, that don't relate directly to your talk.
The 27 best networking subject lines (+9 full templates!)
For example, if you have a slide about security, don't use the image of a padlock. As another example, when describing the problem your work solves, don't use an image of a person sitting at a computer looking frustrated. Just as good introductions and text are better than text alone, text alone is better than text plus bad pictures. When you include a diagram on a slide, ensure that its background is the after color as that of the slide. For example, if your slides have a black background, then do not paste in a diagram with a white background, which is visually distracting, hard to read, and unattractive.
You should invert the diagram so it matches the slide which may require redrawing the diagramor invert the slide background e. Do not use eye candy such as transition effects, de elements that appear on every slide, or multi-color backgrounds. At best, you will distract the audience from the technical material that you are presenting. At worst, you will alienate the audience by giving them the impression that you are more interested in graphical glitz than in content.
Your slides can be attractive and compelling without being fancy. Make sure that each element on the slides contributes to your message; if it does not, then remove it. The presentation Make eye contact someone the audience. This draws them in. It also helps you determin when they are confused or have lost interest, and whether your pacing is too fast, too slow, or just right. Stand and face the audience. Don't give a talk while seated. Standing gives you more energy, the talk is more dynamic, and it is easier to maintain eye contact.
Do not face the screen, which puts your back to the text. Do not look down at your computer, either, which shares many of the same problems.