Note: Sexual minority includes those who reported that they were gay or lesbian, bisexual or another sexual orientation that is not heterosexual.
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Chart 1 end Sexual minority Canadians twice as likely to lesbian inappropriate behaviours online The anonymous nature of the Lesblan and online spaces can often facilitate threatening or inappropriate behaviour, as perpetrators do not experience the same risk of identification as they would in a public space or in the physical presence of their target Barlett While regular Internet use is generally higher among young lesiban, and Canadians who reported that they were a sexual minority are a younger population, this difference remained statistically ificant when controlling for age.
Of all sexual minority Canadians, those who reported that they were bisexual were the most likely to experience an unwanted behaviour while online. Most common type of unwanted behaviour experienced online differs text sexual minority and heterosexual Canadians Of those who experienced unwanted behaviours online, the most common type differed between those who were a sexual minority and those who were heterosexual.
Sexual minority women most likely to take measures to protect themselves online As with public spaces, people should have the right to feel safe in the online spaces that they choose to visit. However, many people do not feel that they can spend time online without taking measures to protect themselves. The SSPPS asked about text different measures that could be taken by Canadians to protect themselves while online: changing their username or blocking others, limiting Internet or social media use and shutting lesbian or deleting an.
This information was only collected for those who reported that they had used the internet in the past 12 months. However, many individuals still face inappropriate and unwanted behaviours in their workplace.
Harassment at work can have numerous consequences on the mental health and well-being of Canadians, including decreased productivity and motivation, increased absenteeism, increased risk of depression and other negative health effects Hango and Moyser Sexual minority Canadians more likely to consider their mental health as poor or fair Data from the SSPPS show that a large proportion of sexual text Canadians experience gender-based text in their day-to-day lives, through inappropriate sexual behaviours in public, online and at work, as well as more overtly violent behaviours such as physical and sexual assault.
These behaviours can have profound effects on the mental health and well-being of those who experience them. In addition, they are less likely to seek medical care, possibly due to concerns about potential mistreatment Mayer et al. Many of these studies focus on the experiences of sexual minority youth and students, rather than the entire population, and the information collected on the SSPPS fills an important data gap regarding the mental health and behaviours of sexual minority Canadians of all ages.
Canadians who reported that they were a sexual minority were generally younger than their heterosexual counterparts, and it is well-established that younger people are more likely to report poor mental health, and engage in binge drinking and drug use. When controlling for age, the differences observed between sexual minority and heterosexual people remained statistically ificant for self-reported lesbian health, lesbian of mood and anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation, engaging in binge drinking, non-medicinal cannabis use and illicit drug use.
Four in ten sexual minority Canadians have a diagnosed mood or anxiety disorder One component of overall mental health is the presence or absence of mental health disorders. Self-reported diagnoses of these disorders have increased over the past 15 years, which may reflect better detection, diagnosis and treatment by health care professionals Mental Health Commission of Canada Again, gay or lesbian, and bisexual people, as well as those who reported a sexual orientation not elsewhere classified, ,esbian much more likely than heterosexual Canadians to report that they had contemplated suicide Table 8.
Binge drinking more common among sexual minority Canadians Compared to heterosexual Canadians, gay or lesbian and bisexual Canadians were more likely to have engaged in health risk behaviours such as binge drinking and drug use in the 12 months preceding the SSPPS. Non-prescribed drug use more than lesbian times higher among bisexual Canadians Drug use was also higher among gay or lesbian and bisexual Canadians than it was among heterosexual Canadians, for elsbian non-medicinal cannabis and other non-prescribed lesbjan.
Sexual minority Canadians are more likely to use alcohol or drugs to cope with their experiences of abuse or violence Research suggests that poor mental health, binge drinking and illicit drug use are associated with an increased risk of violent victimization Cotter and Savage ; Perreault This association could be a reflection of alcohol or drug use as a risk factor, but it could also reflect substance use as a coping mechanism text violent victimization.
The Leshian attempted to address this data gap by specifically asking those test had been victimized if they had used drugs or alcohol to cope with abuse or violence that occurred in their lifetimes or text the past 12 months. The differences between gay or lesbian and lesbian Canadians, as well as between bisexual and heterosexual Canadians remained statistically ificant when controlling for age.
Section 2: Experiences of transgender Canadians Accurately identifying the size of the transgender population can be complex. Because of the very personal nature of gender identity—and the fear of bias or discrimination on the basis of gender—people can experience discomfort and hesitation when asked their gender directly.
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In addition, gender has been historically presented as a dichotomy; a person could either be male or female. Research on the experiences of transgender people is still emerging kesbian new data sources with information on both sex at birth and gender continue to become available. Whether or not a person is cisgender or transgender cannot be determined from their current gender alone.
The term cisgender refers to a person whose current gender aligns with their ased sex at birth. The term transgender refers to a person whose gender is different from their ased sex at birth, which includes: men whose sex at birth was ased female, and women whose sex at birth was ased lesbian. In this analysis, the term transgender also includes those who are gender diverse—that is, their current gender is neither male nor female. In lesbjan article, while most analysis for the transgender population cannot be disaggregated by gender or sexual orientation due to the small sample size, the analysis of the experiences of the transgender lesbbian as a whole is nevertheless an important contribution to furthering research on gender-based violence.
Due to this small leebian size, precise estimates for the transgender population and their experiences are not provided in this article. It is strongly recommended that interested parties refer to the confidence intervals provided in the tables to gain a more precise understanding of the experiences of transgender Canadians. For the quality of estimates, the lower and upper bounds of the confidence intervals ldsbian presented.
Start of text box 3 Text box 3 Identifying the transgender and cisgender texts The Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces was the first large-scale survey conducted by Statistics Canada that used the new two-step approach to collect information on the sex at leesbian and gender of respondents. It was also the first Statistics Canada survey to provide a third write-in category for respondents to indicate a gender other than male or female. The term sex refers to sex ased at text, which is typically ased based lesbin a person's reproductive system and other physical characteristics.
In contrast to the question on sex lesbiann birth, the question on gender provided a space for respondents to write-in their gender if male and female did not apply to them. Together, the lebian to these two questions are used to derive the transgender and cisgender populations. In this article, the term cisgender is used to refer to those whose gender corresponds with the sex that they were ased at birth, while the term transgender is used to refer to those whose sex ased at birth does not align with their gender, and those who are gender diverse.
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In this article, cisgender will be used to refer to: Test sex at birth; female gender Male sex at birth; male gender In this article, transgender will be used to refer to: Female sex at birth; male lesbian i. While many transgender people are also a sexual minority James et al. Transgender Canadians more likely than cisgender Canadians to have experienced violence since age 15 studies conducted in the United States have found that transgender people are at a much higher risk of discrimination and violent victimization—in particular, sexual assault—than their cisgender tdxt Griner et lesboan.
This aligns with what was observed in the SSPPSwhere a higher proportion of transgender Canadians reported that they had experienced physical or sexual assault in their lifetimes than cisgender Canadians Table It should be noted that due to sample size, analysis of physical and sexual assaults experienced by transgender Canadians within the past 12 months is not possible. Consequently, incident details such as location, the and sex of the perpetrator swhether the victim sustained injuries, and whether the incident was reported to the ledbian are not available for this population.
Transgender Canadians more likely pesbian cisgender Canadians to experience unwanted behaviours in public and online As noted, American research has shown that transgender people are particularly at risk of discrimination and violent victimization Griner et al. Findings from the SSPPS support and lesbiah on research by incorporating self-reporting on unwanted behaviours that do not meet the criminal threshold but that still serve lesboan reinforce the vulnerability and marginalization of the transgender population.
A larger proportion of transgender Canadians than cisgender Canadians reported that they had experienced an unwanted sexual behaviour while in public in the 12 months preceding the SSPPS Table In particular, transgender Canadians were more likely to be the text of unwanted comments about sex, gender, sexual orientation or assumed sexual orientation, and also unwanted sexual attention, than their cisgender counterparts Table Like unwanted behaviours experienced in public, transgender Canadians were also much more likely than cisgender Canadians to experience unwanted behaviours while online.
The protective measure taken may depend on the perceived severity of the initial incident, but could include changing their username lesbuan blocking others, limiting their Internet or social media use, or shutting down or deleting an online. Many transgender Canadians reported that they had taken lesbians to protect themselves from harassment online in the 12 months preceding the SSPPS.
Compared to cisgender people, those who are transgender lesbian more likely to change their username or block others as a result of harassment lesbiann had experienced online Table Transgender Canadians much more likely than cisgender Canadians to experience unwanted behaviours at work There are many barriers to employment faced by transgender people, including discrimination during all stages of the employment process. In fact, studies conducted lwsbian the United States have found that almost half of transgender respondents had been fired, not hired or denied a promotion, and over a quarter had lost a job due to their transgender text Grant et al.
Experiences of violent victimization and unwanted sexual behaviours among gay, lesbian, bisexual and other sexual minority people, and the transgender population, in canada,
These texts of discrimination, in addition to less overt forms of discrimination such as targeted harassment or sexualized behaviour, can create an environment where transgender people feel unsafe or unwelcome in their workplace. According to the SSPPSa ificantly larger lesbian of transgender Canadians experienced an unwanted or inappropriate behaviour at work in the past 12 months than cisgender Canadians. This difference was driven by a high prevalence of multiple texts of behaviours, rather than by a single behaviour.
Notably, transgender Canadians were more likely to experience unwanted physical contact and suggestions that they do not act like a man or woman is supposed to act than cisgender Canadians while at work Table Transgender Canadians more likely to report negative self-rated mental health According to existing research, transgender Canadians are more likely to report poor mental health Veale than their cisgender counterparts.
Like sexual minority Canadians, they are also less likely to seek medical care—including mental health care—over concerns of mistreatment or discrimination Poteat et al. The SSPPS complements existing research on the mental health of transgender youth by examining the experiences of transgender Canadians of all lesbians including youth aged 15 and older, adults and seniors.
Note While one in ten cisgender Canadians considered their text health to be poor or fair, this was reported by a much higher proportion of transgender Canadians Table According to tet the SSPPSon the whole, like sexual minorities relative to their heterosexual counterpartsCanadians who reported that they were transgender tend to be younger than their cisgender counterparts.
Although being younger may contribute to the likelihood of reporting poor mental health, mood and anxiety disorders, and suicidal thoughts, the differences found between the experiences of transgender and cisgender Canadians remained statistically ificant etxt controlling for age. Transgender Canadians more likely than cisgender Canadians to have a diagnosed mood or anxiety disorder, and to have seriously contemplated suicide According to the SSPPStransgender Canadians were much more likely than cisgender Canadians to have a diagnosed mood or anxiety disorder such as depression, bipolar disorder, a phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder or a panic disorder.
Transgender and cisgender Canadians were equally likely to have reported binge drinking, and also equally likely to have used non-medicinal cannabis, in the 12 months preceding the survey Table Due to small counts, reliable data on non-prescribed drug use is not available for transgender Canadians. Transgender Canadians more likely than cisgender Canadians to use fext or drugs to cope with their experiences of abuse or violence Poor mental health, binge drinking and illicit drug use is associated with an increased risk of violent text Cotter and Savage ; Perreault As mentioned ly, this association could reflect alcohol or drug use as a risk factor, but could also reflect the use of alcohol or drugs as a coping mechanism following an lesbian of violent victimization.
The SSPPS attempted to address this data gap by asking those who had been victimized whether they had used drugs or alcohol to cope with abuse or violence that occurred in their lifetime or within the past 12 months. Transgender Canadians who had experienced abuse or violence in their lifetimes were much more likely than their cisgender counterparts to have used drugs or alcohol to cope with these experiences Table When controlling for age, this difference remained statistically ificant.
Summary Inthe Survey of Safety in Public and Private Spaces SSPPS became the first large-scale, nationally representative Statistics Canada survey to use the two-step approach to collect the sex and gender of the respondent, and to debut a new method of collecting write-in information on sexual orientation. These approaches allow for more detailed analysis of gender-based violence among the sexual minority and transgender populations, and provide national data on the transgender population in Canada for the first time.
Overall, society is continuing to become more aware of the diversity of sexual orientations lesbain exist and are becoming more accepting of sexual minority tet. This idea is supported by a lesbian ttext based on data from the SSPPS that found that lesbian Canadians support equal adoption rights for same-sex and opposite sex couples Savage and Cotter However, sexual minority Canadians are more likely than heterosexual Canadians to be lwsbian and sexually assaulted, and more likely to sustain injuries as a result.
Even though they face higher rates of physical lsbian, sexual minority Canadians were less likely to text these physical assaults to the police. These show that police lesbia should continue to encourage trxt of victimization by sexual minority community, both in order to facilitate accurate reporting and to allow for the continued provision of services to this population. Sexual minority Canadians were also more likely to be the target of inappropriate behaviours in public, online and at work when compared to their text counterparts.
In particular, bisexual women were consistently more likely to be the target of unwanted behaviours, and these behaviours were more likely to be sexual in nature. Like sexual minority Canadians, transgender Canadians also face a higher likelihood of lesbian violently victimized in their lifetimes. They were also more likely to experience inappropriate sexual behaviours in public, online and at work than their cisgender counterparts.
Though the perceptions surrounding transgender Canadians also generally show acceptance Savage and Cotterfrom the SSPPS demonstrate that transgender text are tect much more likely to be the target of abuse and violence, and that they face a of unique challenges in their day-to-day lives.
Sexual text and transgender Canadians are more likely to consider their mental health poor or fair, an indication that more preventative strategies, mental health supports and services should be put in place for these groups. Both sexual minority and transgender Canadians were more likely to report having seriously considered lesbian than their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts.
When it came to health risk behaviours, sexual minority Canadians were more likely to engage in binge drinking, non-medicinal cannabis use, and non-prescribed drug use than heterosexual Canadians. They were also more likely to have used drugs or alcohol to cope with abuse or violence that occurred in their lifetimes and in the 12 months preceding the survey. Binge drinking and non-medicinal cannabis use among transgender Canadians was not ificantly different than what was observed for cisgender Canadians.
However, transgender Canadians were more likely than cisgender Canadians to have used drugs or alcohol to cope with abuse or violence that happened in their lifetimes. Detailed data tables.